Dating nepa

Born from late-nineteenth-century concern over resource exploitation, the environmental movement has become an overarching term for the growing public interest in protecting Earth and its natural resources.

Naturalists like John Muir, in the late s and early s, and forester Aldo Leopold, in the s and s, invested their time and spirit extolling the virtues of the U. Both men shared a common vision for protecting the dynamic landscape of mountains and grasslands that was a distinguishing characteristic of the United States. The ensuing battles over damming rivers and logging forests helped shape the modern environmental ethic. A Crusade for Reform As the nation grew, the gap between people and the natural environment was widening.

The introduction of railroads, telegraphs, and stockyards, helped transform cities into major industrial centers. Populations within cities increased, as immigrants flocked to them seeking employment. The resulting noise, grit, and industrial waste compelled women in the cities to take action. In Chicago, social worker Jane Addams was prepared to do just that. The creation of Hull House helped mark what is known as the Settlement House era.

Across the United States, settlement houses sought to reform communities by raising public awareness about problems to find resolutions.

Working-class neighborhoods were in the most dire straits, with overcrowding and poor sanitation. Hull House was concerned with the need for solid waste and sewage management in poor working neighborhoods. To remedy this, Addams became trash inspector for her Chicago ward. Likewise, McDowell motivated people to consider reduction, and pressured industries to take responsibility for their trash and sewage disposal.

The crusade for reforming working-class neighborhoods continued as McDowell opened a new settlement house in the meat-packing section of Chicago. Between the polluted waters of the Chicago River and the fields of slaughterhouse waste, McDowell began to make a strong connection between the conditions of work and daily life.

Under Teddy Roosevelt, reformers The Clearwater, a sloop built to promote the antipollution cause, is sailing down the Hudson river past a junkyard on its way to the first Earth Day activities in Joining the political ranks, reformers provided greater visibility to the problems of pollution and social injustice. Consequently, leagues representing women and consumer interests gained popularity. The postwar abundance could be easily pinpointed by the mass consumption of everything from energy and detergents to plastics and pesticides.

Goods were created and marketed to provide convenience, and amenities were plentiful. As Samuel Hays observed, a "greater distance between consumption and its environmental consequences increasingly depersonalized the links between the two" Hays, p. The postwar impact on the environment was difficult to ignore. Within ten years, three major bouts of air pollution paralyzed the United States and Europe.

In a thick smog trapped residents of Los Angeles in an unhealthy shroud of air pollution that came to be known as Black Monday. Five years later, in the Pennsylvania town of Donora, another deadly smog hung over the Monongahela Valley leaving six thousand people ill and twenty dead. In perhaps the worst case of air pollution, a deadly fog descended on London in , killing several thousand. Yet in spite of these and other environmental problems, the general public and policymakers remained relatively unconcerned.

What did finally awaken the public was the growth of an antinuclear movement in the early s. As the United States performed aboveground testing of nuclear weapons, the implications for human life were startling. Protest efforts in neighboring Great Britain and the aftermath of Bikini Atoll created widespread fear about the risk of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing.

Housewives and high school and college students mobilized against testing, and communities protested. Everyone, it seemed, had a stake in the debate. The Power of Activism By the time the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union was signed in , citizens were learning about chemical fallout right in their own backyards.

Eventually farmworkers were able to use public awareness as a bargaining tool in their work contracts, calling for a national boycott on grapes. Carson, like the reformers before her, felt an explicit need to make information accessible to the public, and many other scientists agreed.

The proliferation of publications and community protests sent the message to state and national government that the pollution problem needed to appear on their agendas. Environmental issues were swept up in a time of great social unrest.

Marked by counterculture ethics and the tool of protest, citizen groups began to make connections between technological progress and pollution.

Traditional wilderness preservation environmental groups dating back to the turn of the twentieth century, like the Sierra Club and the National Audubon Society, were now working alongside a new breed of antipollution activists. Protesters considered quality-of-life issues to be environmental issues. If the industries supporting their lifestyles were also degrading their neighborhoods, change needed to occur. Among the organic farms, counterculture communes, and underground publications, society was seeking to reestablish a connection with the environment.

The New National Agenda If the s arrived with a compelling or infamous start, it exited in the same fashion. In an oil tanker off of Great Britain ran aground, spilling 40, tons of oil. Attempts to contain the accident and salvage the remaining oil were useless.

The tanker spilled another 77, tons of oil that washed Crew of the Japanese whaling ship Kyo Maru 1 using water cannons to disperse activists during an antiwhaling demonstration in the waters of the Antarctic Ocean, December 16, The beaches in Santa Barbara, California, were soaked with oil, choking thousands of birds and mammals. Less than five months later, the Cuyahoga River in Ohio caught on fire from chemical and sewage pollution.

The relationship between industries, communities, and the environment was far from harmonious. With NEPA, the national government was taking a stand for the first time to integrate public concerns into the national environmental agenda. NEPA gave the national government the responsibility to help eliminate environmental destruction and seek a balance between the needs of industry and the environment.

The Council on Environmental Quality was created to help advance this cause. The s are noted by many as the doomsday decade. Interest in environmental issues had remained strong from the debate over nuclear testing in the s to the uninhibited use of DDT and the devastating effects of pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

Environmental issues had been tied into larger social movements, but as the United States moved into a new decade, concern for the environment became a stand-alone issue. The intrinsic value of nature, with the exception of the wilderness preservation movement at the turn of the twentieth century, was not truly addressed until this time.

Senator Gaylord Nelson to make a bold move. He had an idea for a national teach-in on environmental issues. A task force calling itself Environmental Action was formed to develop the idea. By seeking official support, avoiding confrontation, and scattering events across the United States, the committee hoped to involve the entire society.

Many established environmental groups refused to participate, cautious of the activism that typified the era. Many of the older environmental organizations worked from a much more traditional standpointówithin political and social parameters. They believed the extremism of groups like EarthFirst! Despite their hesitancy, the day met with great success. Shortly after the Earth Day celebration demonstrated public concern about environmental problems, Barry Commoner, a notable scientist and professor, published The Closing Circle: Nature, Man, and Technology.

Commoner wrote about the need for humans to return to a state of equilibrium with nature. In Pittsburgh, GASP activists brought attention to pollution by selling cans of clean air and opening their own complaint department. The League of Conservation Voters published lists of top-polluting industries and rated politicians based on their environmental voting record.

The national government responded and took steps towards regaining the balance discussed by Commoner and those before him. The existing Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act were amended to better address the causes and effects of pollution, and regulatory measures were put into place.

Between and , several new federal acts were also passed, regulating ocean dumping, pesticides, and the transportation of waste. The pressure of local groups, acting independently of larger mainstream groups, paid off.

Several pieces of environmental legislation were passed, addressing the transportation and cleanup of chemicals and waste. Legal Support for Environmentalists Special-tactic groups began to emerge to accommodate the transition of environmental issues onto the national agenda.

A generous grant from the Ford Company led to the creation of the NRDC, a science-based initiative dealing with the new legal aspects of the movement. Even local citizen groups began to focus their interests. Compelled to push for the litigation of chemical use, especially pesticides, they reestablished themselves as the Environmental Defense Fund EDF. Throughout the s the EDF, also with the help of Ford, gained notoriety for its success in waging the war on pollution in court.

The legal and scientific services offered by groups like the NRDC and EDF became important assets to the environmental movement during the s. From to , communities were finding themselves more widely exposed to pollution than they had first realized. In Love Canal, New York, where many homes had been built on a chemical waste dump, Lois Gibbs worked endlessly to rectify the situation, lobbying polluters, politicians, and attorneys for support.

In President Jimmy Carter declared a state of emergency. Gibbs later formed the Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes CCHW , which helped other communities with toxic waste problems, while calling for greater toxics controls. Love Canal led directly to the passage of the Superfund law. The International Movement Europeans were struggling with their own environmental disasters.

Swedish scientists had been studying the connection between common air pollutants like sulfur and nitrogen dioxides and high levels of acidity in many of their waters.

Documenting an overall decline in the biological diversity of Scandinavia, the scientists hoped to capture international attention.

Conference on the Human Environment, hosted by Sweden, was the perfect place to present their findings. Air pollutants transported by precipitation and deposited across the land came to be known as acid rain. The idea that pollution did not remain a local problem but could be carried long distances alarmed the international community. By thirty-five countries signed the first international air-pollution agreement, the Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.

During the course of the s, the face of environmentalism had shifted to civil action. Just as it seemed that environmental policies were effectively in place, the political climate was about to make a complete turnóbut not before the fear of nuclear power reared its head again.

In a partial meltdown at the nuclear plant in Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania, generated a ripple of fear and uncertainty throughout the public. Residents were evacuated, and radiation-contaminated water was released in the nearby Susquehanna Aview of earth from space. One year after the enactment of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation Liability Act, also known as Superfund, a national law dealing with the cleanup of contaminated areas, the alarms sounded again.


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Total 1 comments.
#1 26.08.2018 –≤ 23:38 Macs:
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